About Thane District


Brief about Thane District

Villages in Thane Distriact
Thane (formerly Thana) is a city in Maharashtra, India, part of the Mumbai Conurbation, northeast of Mumbai at the head of the Thane Creek.


(Ancient Shreestanak to the ultra modern Thane city) The city of Thane is situated on the western banks of Thane creek with Parsik hills on the east and Yeour hills on the west. The creek not only provides a natural protection to the place but has also facilitated transport of big and small ships since ancient times. This has also acted as an impetus for the development of local and international trade since the pre-historic times. Besides being the stamping ground of the pre-historic tribes, Thane city has a rich cultural heritage, mythological background, followed by a large number of events of historical importance , archeological collectives that have contributed to the enrichment of the history of Thane city. The existence of Thane city appears in the global history since the 9th century A.D. The city was then know as Shreesthanak. It was more popularly known as the Capital of the Shilahar dynasty. The history of Thane city can be broadly categorized into 5 eras. Vedic period to 1300 A.D. : Comprising of Hindu or ancient period, Aparant , Shilahar and Bimba Dynasty. 1300 –1660 A.D. : Mohamedan and Portuguese Rule. 1660-1800 A.D. : Maratha and Portuguese Rule. 1800-1947 A.D. : British Rule. 1947-till date : Post Independence Thane. ‘Aparant’ is the ancient name of the geographical area hosting Thane city. During the Indian expedition of the Greek Emperor Alexander, a number of philosophers, historians and geographists visited India. Among them a Greek historian ‘Tolemi’ has mentioned about the city of Thane in his writings. A famous sailor named Marcopolo had also visited Thane in 1290 A.D. and noted it to be one of the best cities in the world. A place called ‘Ghodbunder’ was famous for horse trading thus deriving its name from the word ghoda i.e. horse and bunder meaning port. During this period a fabric called ‘Tansi’ was exported from Thane. During the period from 13 A.D. to 17 A.D., the Muslims, Portuguese, Marathas, & the British dynasties ruled Thane. From 810 A.D. to 1260 A.D. the Shilahar Dynasty ruled over Thane. The Emperors of Shilahar dynasty were disciples of Lord Shiva and the Kopineshwar Temple has been built during their reign. During this period, due to the secular attitude and tolerance of Shilahars towards different religions, a large number of people from different communities like Parsis , Christians, Muslims and Jews settled down in Thane, thus sowing seeds of a cosmopolitan city. At this time the Shilahars also divided the city into different sections and named them as ‘padas’. It is seen that these padas exist even today by names of Naupada, Patlipada, Agripada etc. In the earlier part of the 12th Century A.D. with a view to create a new township, King Bimbadev, alongwith 66 segments of his community came over and settled in Thane. In 1480 A.D. ‘Sultan Mehmood’ of Gujarat made Thane the Capital of his ‘Subha’ Province. St. John the Baptist Church was constructed in Thane in 1663 A.D. The construction work of famous Thane Killa (Fort) was started in 1730 A.D. In 1737 A.D. Chimaji Appa the Maratha Sardar planned the ‘Conquest of Vasai’ and on 28th March, 1738 the Marathas conquered the Thane Killa. The fort is presently being used as ‘Thane Central Jail’. The Portuguese ruled Thane for over 200 years from 1530 to 1739 A.D. During this period Thane was known as “Kalabe De Tana”. In the year 1744 the British conquered Thane city alongwith its fort. The famous Kopineshwar Temple was renovated in the year 1760. In 1778 the palatial residence of the Peshwas was converted into the Court building. In the year 1780 Keshavji Sorabji Rustomji Patel constructed the first Parsi Agyari in Thane. The first District Court was established in the year 1803 A.D. The Thane Borough Municipality was established on 10th March 1863. The first ever railway train was started on 16th April, 1853 from Boribunder to Thane, giving Thane the honour of hosting an event of historical importance in the city. In the year 1880 the Thane Borough Municipality spent Rs. 12,960/- on construction of the Pokharan Lake, to make use of the lake water for drinking purpose. This prestigious project was inaugurated by the then Governor of Mumbai, Sir Ferguson James. The first elections of the Municipality were conducted in the year 1885. The first newspaper in Thane was launched in the year 1866. Different Marathi magazines like Arunodaya, Survodaya, Vakilancha Sathi, Nyaylahari, Manohar, Dyanapradip, Dyanadipika were seen to be in circulation thus showing the importance of the print media during that period. The first census took place in the year 1881 and the population of Thane at the time was 14,456. The Jain temple of Thane was built in the year 1879. The first ever English medium school was started in 1821 and was named as ‘Thane English School’. In the year 1893, the first Marathi Library was established. In 1896 the birth anniversary of Shivaji Maharaj was celebrated for the first time in Thane. In June 1897 Lokmanya Tilak visited Thane. On 19th April, 1910 noted freedom fighters like Veer Anant Laxman Kanhere, Gopal Krishnaji Karve & Vinayak Narayan Deshpande were hanged till death in the Central Jail for killing the then Nasik District Collector Jackson. In 1938 noted freedom fighter Veer Savarkar was felicitated by the citizens of Thane after his release from the British confinement. In 1920 a road near Masunda lake was named after Dr. F.A. Moose for the commemorative service during the epidemic of plague. A reputed citizen of Thane Shri Vithal Sayanna’s son Divan Bahadur Narayan Sayanna reconstructed the Civil Hospital building in 1935. The first Independence Day of India –15th August, 1947 was celebrated in Thane by bringing down the British Union Jack and hoisting the tri-coloured flag of India at the hands of a noted freedom fighter Shri Nanasaheb Joshi at the District Collector’s Office. With a view to preserve the rich cultural heritage of Thane, the Thane Municipal Council constructed Rangayatan, a drama theatre, named after the noted Marathi writer Shri Ram Ganesh Gadkari. The theatre has been hosting different plays and cultural programmes since then. The Thane Municipal Corporation was established on 1st October, 1982. It had a population of 7,90,000 as per the 1990 Census. The population has reached to about 14,00,000 in the year 2003. The Thane Municipal Corporation has undertaken many developmental projects and schemes since 1982 for a balanced development of the city. One of major projects is the Integrated Road Development Project. Taking in view the all round infrastructural development which has recently taken place in Thane , the Govt. of India conferred the prestigious ‘Clean City Award’ to Thane in the year 2000.


Thane is located to the North of Mumbai (Bombay, Maharashtra,India). Although being a district place, the city has always been shadowed by the existence of the metropolis just on its outskirts .Spanned over an area of about 147 km², this city houses over 10 Lakh (1 million) people. A total of 200 km of roads run through the city. The city is surrounded by scenic hills, which add to its beauty. The Hill of Yeoor is considered to be the hill station for the Thaneyites. On the other hand is the Parsik Hill. The city is divided by Thane Creek, a stream of water from the Arabian Sea. Two road bridges & one rail bridge connect the two parts of the city

Location 30 km North East of Mumbai on the western coast of India. Also close to Navi Mumbai Airoli node via the Thane-Belapur road TB road for short


Typical coastal sultry & humid

Rainfall - Average 250 to 300 mm beginning of June to end of September.

Temperature - Average - 32 - 37 °C

Humidity - 45% to 87% highest in month of August.

Altitude Plains at sea level

Population 1.55 million (Year 2003) Area 48 km²


This district lies in the north-west of Maharashtra State.

Nashik and Ahmadnagar districts are to the east of Thane district, Raigad district to the south and Pune district to the south-east, Mumbai suburban district is to the south-west. The Arabian Sea is to the west, whereas Gujarat state and Dadra and Nagar Haveli territory are to the north of this district.


There are different land forms in Thane District. The western part of the district is a plain whereas Tunger, JIvadhan, Tandulwadi, Takmak, etc., are hills. The Sahyadri mountain is on the eastern boundary of the district. The Jawhar-Mokhade plateau is in the north-easten part of the district.

The different land forms in a region constitute its physical set-up. If we consider the physical set-up of Thane District, we see that there are three physical divisions.

a) The Mountainous Region of the Sahyadris:-

The Sahyadri ranges contitute the eastern part of the district. Parts of Murbad, Shahapur, Jawhar, Mokhade and Vikramgad talukas form this region.

b) The River Basins -

The central part of this district is mostly a lowlying area. Kalyan, Bhiwandi, Wade, Dahanu, Ulhasnagar, Ambarnath and Talasari Talukas form this region.

c) Coastal Region:

The western part of the district is a coastal plain. Dahanu, Palghar, Vasai, and Thane talukas make up this region.

Roads going eastwards towards Nashik district pass through Shirghat and Thalghat situated in the district. Naneghat is on the border of Pune district towards the south-east. It hasw been an important road for transportation right from the early days. The Arnala fort in Thane district is well-known.


Vaitarna and Ulhas are the two main rivers in Thane district.

Vaitarna River:

This river flows across Shahapur, Wade and Palghar talukas and meets the Arabian Sea. Dahreja, Surya and Tansa are the tributaries of the Vaitarna. The Datiware creek in Palghar taluka is near the mouth of the Vaitarna river.

Ulhas River:

The river Ulhas enters Thane district through the neighbouring Raigad distrct. This river has its source in the Borghat and meets the Arabian Sea at the Vasai creek. Barbi, Bhatsai are its tributaries. The Ulhas river branches out in two directions near Thane. The western distributary of this river flows into the Vasai creek and the southern distributary flows into the Thane creek.


The Arabian Sea is to the wesxt of Thane district. That is why the climate of the district is generally hot and humid.

The mountainous region receives more rainfall than the coastal region. Jawhar, Wade, Shahapur, Murbad, Vikramgad and Thane talukas receive more rain than the other talukas. Jawhar and Suryamal are the hill-stations in our district.


Wells, lakes and rivers are the sources of water supply in Thane district. There are more wells in Vasai, Palghar and Dahanu areas. There are bunds on the Surya, Vandri, Pelhar, Ulhas and Murbadi rivers. There is a dam across the Vandri river in Palghar taluka. The important dams in the district are Vaitarna, Tansa and Bhatsa where there are huge reservoirs. Water supply to the city of Mumbai is made from some of the lakes in Thane district. Water from the rivers Ulhas and Barbi is supplies to the industrial belt in the south and to New Mumbai.


a) Forest Wealth -

There are forests in the hilly region of Thane district. There are thick forests in Dahanu, Shahpur, Palghar, Jawhar, Wade and Mokhade talukas. Sissoo, teak, ain, khair, palas, pangara trees grow in these forests. Other trees such as banyan, mango, tamarind, coconut are also found here. Casuarina and eucalyptus trees have been planted on the sea-coast. The Tansa sanctuary is in this district. We find wild animals like leopards and sambhars in this sanctuary.

b) Mineral Wealth -

Bauxite deposits are found in the Tungar hills in Vasai taluka.

Sand which is useful in the construction of houses is found in the bed of the Ulhas river in the Thane creek. Mumbra is a port where sand is obtained.

Black rock called basalt is found in Kalyan, Ambarnath, Vasai and Thane talukas. It is used in the construction of houses and roads.

c) Marine Wealth-

Fishing is carried on along the sea coast. Uttan, Arnala, Mahim, Satpati, Chinchani, Dahanu, etc., are ports famous for fishing.

Vasai High mineral oilfield is located in the sea.

There are many salt pans at Vasai, Bhaindar, Dahanu and other places. Conches and shells are also obtained from the sea.


a) Kharif Crops

The important kharif crops from the district are rice, vari and nachani. Urad, moong, kulith are some other crops grown in this season.

b) Rice

Rice is the main crop of the district. Rice is grown mainly in Palghar, Bhiwandi, Murbad, Shahapur, Wade, Vikramgad and Dahanu talukas. Rice is grown in the other talukas also.

c) Vari and Nachani

Vari and nachani are grown in the hilly region of the east. These crops are grown mainly in Jawhar, Murbad, Vikramgad, Shahapur and Mokhade talukas.

d) Rabi Crops

Wal, chavali and gram are the crops grown in the rabi season.

e) Irrigated Crops and Fruits:

Irrigated crops are grown in Dahanu, Palghar and Vasai talukas. Dahanu taluka is famour for fruits. Chikkus are grown on a large scale at Gholwad. Chikku orchards are also found in Palghar and Talasari areas. Chikkus grown in these areas are sent all over India. Other crops include guavas, mangoes, papayas, grapefruits and coconuts. Vasai and Palghar are famous for different varieties of bananas such as rajeli, tambeli, mutheli and velchi. There are rose gardens at Dahanu. Other varieties of fruits such as bor, wild beries and lychees grow in particular seasons. There is a great demand for these fruits in the Mumbai market.

Vegetables are also grown in our district. Among the vegetables, bringals are grown on a large scale.


From the point of view of industries, Thane is an important district of Maharashtra state. There are many large scale and small scale industries in the district.

There are different types of textile industries at Thane and in the neighbouring areas. There are cotton and woollen textile mills at Thane. Silk yarn and cloth are made in Bhiwandi. There are a large number of powerlooms at Bhiwandi. There is a factory making artificial silk (yarn) at Mohane.

There are many factories manufacturing various articles from iron and steel in the Thane-Belapur belt. There are factories manufacturing different types of machines and other metal equipment at Thane. Kalyan and Dahanu each have a factory where spare parts of motor-cars are manufactured. There are pharmaceutical and chemical factories at Ambarnath, Bhaindar and Thane. There are paint and chemical factories at Thane and Bhaindar. There is a paper mill too at Thane. Plastic goods are manufactured at Ulhasnagar and Bhaindar.

There are matchbox factories at Ambarnath and Thane. There are canning factories for the canning of various type of foodstuff, fruit juice and slices at well as beverage factories at Thane and Kalyan. There is a big milk project at Dapchari, Saralgaon and Pali have milk chilling centres. There are rice mills at Kalyan, Bhiwandi and Dahanu. Bangle making factories are found in Tarapur and Chinchani areas.

The first neclar power plant in India was set up at Tarapur in Thane district.

In addition, there are a number of factores manufacturing electrical equipment at Thane and Ulhasnagar.

There are industrial estates at Ambarnath, Kalyan, Bhiwandi, Thane-Belapur, Badlapur, Mira, Tarapur and Murbad in Thane district.


The modes of transport in Thane district are roads, railways and waterways.

We find many roads and railways here as Thane district lies close to Mumbai city and Mumbai suburban districts and as industry has grown from Mumbai towards Thane.

National Highways : Three national highways pass through Thane district.

Mumbai-Agra National Highway : This highway starts from Mumbai. The important places from Thane district on this highway are Thane, Bhiwandi, Shahpur, Khardi.

Mumbai-Bangalore National Highway: This Highway starts from Mumbai. A big bridge is built on the Thane creek on this highway. This highway then proceeds from Vashi to Bangalore via Panvel ijn Raigad district.

Mumbai-Ahmadabad National Highway: Ghodbandar, Manor, Talasari, etc., from this district are on this highway.

There are also other roads in the district connecting other places.

Railways : Three main railway lines pass through Thane district. The first railway line in India. from Mumbai to Thane, was laid in this district.

Mumbai-Chennai Railway Line: Starting from Mumbai, this railway line goes to Chennai via Thane, Dombivli, Kalyan, Ulhasnagar, Ambarnath, Badlapur stations in the district.

Mumbai-Kolkata Railwaqy Line : Thane, Kalyan, Shahad, Titwala, Asangaon, Khardi and Kasara railway stations are on this railway route.

Mumbai-Delhi Railway LIne : This railway goes to Delhi from Mumbai via vadodara in Gujarat state. The following railway stations from Thane district are located on this line : Bhaindar, Vasai Road, Nalasopara, Virar, Palghar, Dahanu Road and Gholwad.

Kalyan, Diva and Vasai Road are the railway junctions in the district.

Local Transport : Local transport facility has been proved ona large scale for the people from Thane district to go to Mumbai and various suburbs as also to places in Thane district. Local transport is useful for travelling to and from offices, factories, educational institutions, etc., as well as for business.

Trains used for local transport are called local trains. They run on electricity. Local trains leaving from Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus go upto Kalyan, Ambarnath and Kasara in Thane district. Local trains leaving from Churchage railway station go upto Dahanu in the district. One railway line goes from Diva upto Panvel in Raigad district in the south. Trains have now started plying from Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, Mumbai upto Panvel.

In addition lto this, buses also carry the local traffic in Mumbai-Thane-Kalyan cities.

Waterways: Thane district is near the sea. So the coastal traffic in the district is carried by sea. Creeks are also used for transport. Dahanu, Satpati, Mahim. Kalyan, Vasai, Uttan, etc., are the ports in the district.

Trade: Wood for building cojnstruction, coal, honey, salt, fish, fruits, vegetables, etc., are sent to other places from the distrct. Cotton, iron, sugar, fertilizers, medicines, kerosene, etc., are brought into the district from other districts or states.


The hilly region consisting of Mokhade, Jawhar, Talasari, Dahanu, Wade, Vikramgad, Shahapur and Murbad talukas is in the north and north-east of Thane district. Adivasis live in this hilly region. They are known by the following names : Warli, Katkari, Thakar, Malhar koli, Dhodia and Dubla.


There are a number of important places in Thane district -

Thane: Thane is the district headquarters. There are many industries here. There are cotton and woollen textile mills. Also, there are factories manufacturing paper, paints, metal equipment, machinery and iron goods. The Kopineshwar temple of Thane is famous.

Kalyan: This place is the taluka headquarters and the main railway junction. There are rice mills here as also factories making car spare parts. Sand, bricks and rice are sent out from here by waterways. The Hajimalang dargah is situated on Malangagad hill nearby.

Bhiwandi: This town is situated on the Mumbai-Agra highway. This place is famous for its handlooms and powerlooms. Carpets and silk fabric are made here. Machinery for rice mills is also manufactured here. There are rice mills and timber marts in Bhiwandi.

Ambarnath : This taluka headquarters is situated on the Mumbai-Pune railway line. There are factories manufacturing chemicals, matchboxes, explosives and watches. The ancient Shivalaya of Ambarnath is worth visiting.

Ulhasnagar: This is the taluka headquarters. This town is situated in the Ulhas river basin. It has factories making radio sets and plastic goods.

Jawhar : This is the taluka headquarters. This place is on the Nashik-Dahanu road. As it is situated on a high plateau, it is known as a hill-station.

Dapchari: There are dairy facility (Gawaliwada) at Dapchari for adivasis. A milk project has also been developed here on a large scale.

Kase : It has a Sarvodaya Kendra for adivasis.

Manor : This place is situated on the banks of the Vaitarna river. It is a junction of Mumbai-Ahmadabad and Palghar-Wade roadways. That is why it has become a transport centre.

Vajreshwari : Vajreshwari is famous for its hot water springs. Hot water springs are also found Ganeshpuri, Akloli, Datiware and Kokner.

Virar : This is an important place in Vasai taluka. Local trains from Mumbai travel upto this station. The Arnala port is located nearby, Arnala fort is well-known.

Vashi : New Mumbai beyond the Thane creek is a planned city. Vashi, the main town, is known as Vashinagar.

Dombivli : This is an important centre on the Central Railway. There are various industries here.

Bhaindar : This is an important centre on the Western Railway. There are many salt pans here. There are also factories manufacturing chemicals, paints, plastic articles and medicines.

Mokhade : This place is the taluka headquarters. The hill-station Suryamal is nearby.

Vasai : Vasai on the Western Railway is the taluka headquarters. There are a famous historical fort here. There are also banana and betel-leaf plantations. There is a factory making fountain pens.

Palghar : Palghar is the taluka headquarters. There is a nuclear power plant at Tatapur which is nearby.

Dahanu : This place is the taluka headquarters. There are chikku and rose gardens here. It is a fishing port. There are factories manufacturing iron water drawing wheels and car spare parts. Also, there are rice mills. A special kind of jaggery (tadgul) is made from the sap of the palm tree. Small boats too are built here.

Satpati : This port is famous for fishing.

Vikramgad : This is the taluka headquarters.

Talasari, Shahapur, Murbad, Wade are taluka headquarters. They are developing gradually. There is a Vitthal-Rakhumai temple at Shahad and a Ganapati temple at Titwala.



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