about Thane District
in Thane Distriact
Thane (formerly Thana) is a city in Maharashtra, India, part
of the Mumbai Conurbation, northeast of Mumbai at the head
of the Thane Creek.
(Ancient Shreestanak to the ultra modern Thane city) The city
of Thane is situated on the western banks of Thane creek with
Parsik hills on the east and Yeour hills on the west. The
creek not only provides a natural protection to the place
but has also facilitated transport of big and small ships
since ancient times. This has also acted as an impetus for
the development of local and international trade since the
pre-historic times. Besides being the stamping ground of the
pre-historic tribes, Thane city has a rich cultural heritage,
mythological background, followed by a large number of events
of historical importance , archeological collectives that
have contributed to the enrichment of the history of Thane
city. The existence of Thane city appears in the global history
since the 9th century A.D. The city was then know as Shreesthanak.
It was more popularly known as the Capital of the Shilahar
dynasty. The history of Thane city can be broadly categorized
into 5 eras. Vedic period to 1300 A.D. : Comprising of Hindu
or ancient period, Aparant , Shilahar and Bimba Dynasty. 1300
–1660 A.D. : Mohamedan and Portuguese Rule. 1660-1800 A.D.
: Maratha and Portuguese Rule. 1800-1947 A.D. : British Rule.
1947-till date : Post Independence Thane. ‘Aparant’ is the
ancient name of the geographical area hosting Thane city.
During the Indian expedition of the Greek Emperor Alexander,
a number of philosophers, historians and geographists visited
India. Among them a Greek historian ‘Tolemi’ has mentioned
about the city of Thane in his writings. A famous sailor named
Marcopolo had also visited Thane in 1290 A.D. and noted it
to be one of the best cities in the world. A place called
‘Ghodbunder’ was famous for horse trading thus deriving its
name from the word ghoda i.e. horse and bunder meaning port.
During this period a fabric called ‘Tansi’ was exported from
Thane. During the period from 13 A.D. to 17 A.D., the Muslims,
Portuguese, Marathas, & the British dynasties ruled Thane.
From 810 A.D. to 1260 A.D. the Shilahar Dynasty ruled over
Thane. The Emperors of Shilahar dynasty were disciples of
Lord Shiva and the Kopineshwar Temple has been built during
their reign. During this period, due to the secular attitude
and tolerance of Shilahars towards different religions, a
large number of people from different communities like Parsis
, Christians, Muslims and Jews settled down in Thane, thus
sowing seeds of a cosmopolitan city. At this time the Shilahars
also divided the city into different sections and named them
as ‘padas’. It is seen that these padas exist even today by
names of Naupada, Patlipada, Agripada etc. In the earlier
part of the 12th Century A.D. with a view to create a new
township, King Bimbadev, alongwith 66 segments of his community
came over and settled in Thane. In 1480 A.D. ‘Sultan Mehmood’
of Gujarat made Thane the Capital of his ‘Subha’ Province.
St. John the Baptist Church was constructed in Thane in 1663
A.D. The construction work of famous Thane Killa (Fort) was
started in 1730 A.D. In 1737 A.D. Chimaji Appa the Maratha
Sardar planned the ‘Conquest of Vasai’ and on 28th March,
1738 the Marathas conquered the Thane Killa. The fort is presently
being used as ‘Thane Central Jail’. The Portuguese ruled Thane
for over 200 years from 1530 to 1739 A.D. During this period
Thane was known as “Kalabe De Tana”. In the year 1744 the
British conquered Thane city alongwith its fort. The famous
Kopineshwar Temple was renovated in the year 1760. In 1778
the palatial residence of the Peshwas was converted into the
Court building. In the year 1780 Keshavji Sorabji Rustomji
Patel constructed the first Parsi Agyari in Thane. The first
District Court was established in the year 1803 A.D. The Thane
Borough Municipality was established on 10th March 1863. The
first ever railway train was started on 16th April, 1853 from
Boribunder to Thane, giving Thane the honour of hosting an
event of historical importance in the city. In the year 1880
the Thane Borough Municipality spent Rs. 12,960/- on construction
of the Pokharan Lake, to make use of the lake water for drinking
purpose. This prestigious project was inaugurated by the then
Governor of Mumbai, Sir Ferguson James. The first elections
of the Municipality were conducted in the year 1885. The first
newspaper in Thane was launched in the year 1866. Different
Marathi magazines like Arunodaya, Survodaya, Vakilancha Sathi,
Nyaylahari, Manohar, Dyanapradip, Dyanadipika were seen to
be in circulation thus showing the importance of the print
media during that period. The first census took place in the
year 1881 and the population of Thane at the time was 14,456.
The Jain temple of Thane was built in the year 1879. The first
ever English medium school was started in 1821 and was named
as ‘Thane English School’. In the year 1893, the first Marathi
Library was established. In 1896 the birth anniversary of
Shivaji Maharaj was celebrated for the first time in Thane.
In June 1897 Lokmanya Tilak visited Thane. On 19th April,
1910 noted freedom fighters like Veer Anant Laxman Kanhere,
Gopal Krishnaji Karve & Vinayak Narayan Deshpande were hanged
till death in the Central Jail for killing the then Nasik
District Collector Jackson. In 1938 noted freedom fighter
Veer Savarkar was felicitated by the citizens of Thane after
his release from the British confinement. In 1920 a road near
Masunda lake was named after Dr. F.A. Moose for the commemorative
service during the epidemic of plague. A reputed citizen of
Thane Shri Vithal Sayanna’s son Divan Bahadur Narayan Sayanna
reconstructed the Civil Hospital building in 1935. The first
Independence Day of India –15th August, 1947 was celebrated
in Thane by bringing down the British Union Jack and hoisting
the tri-coloured flag of India at the hands of a noted freedom
fighter Shri Nanasaheb Joshi at the District Collector’s Office.
With a view to preserve the rich cultural heritage of Thane,
the Thane Municipal Council constructed Rangayatan, a drama
theatre, named after the noted Marathi writer Shri Ram Ganesh
Gadkari. The theatre has been hosting different plays and
cultural programmes since then. The Thane Municipal Corporation
was established on 1st October, 1982. It had a population
of 7,90,000 as per the 1990 Census. The population has reached
to about 14,00,000 in the year 2003. The Thane Municipal Corporation
has undertaken many developmental projects and schemes since
1982 for a balanced development of the city. One of major
projects is the Integrated Road Development Project. Taking
in view the all round infrastructural development which has
recently taken place in Thane , the Govt. of India conferred
the prestigious ‘Clean City Award’ to Thane in the year 2000.
is located to the North of Mumbai (Bombay, Maharashtra,India).
Although being a district place, the city has always been
shadowed by the existence of the metropolis just on its outskirts
.Spanned over an area of about 147 km², this city houses over
10 Lakh (1 million) people. A total of 200 km of roads run
through the city. The city is surrounded by scenic hills,
which add to its beauty. The Hill of Yeoor is considered to
be the hill station for the Thaneyites. On the other hand
is the Parsik Hill. The city is divided by Thane Creek, a
stream of water from the Arabian Sea. Two road bridges & one
rail bridge connect the two parts of the city
30 km North East of Mumbai on the western coast of India.
Also close to Navi Mumbai Airoli node via the Thane-Belapur
road TB road for short
coastal sultry & humid
- Average 250 to 300 mm beginning of June to end of September.
- Average - 32 - 37 °C
- 45% to 87% highest in month of August.
Plains at sea level
1.55 million (Year 2003) Area 48 km²
LOCATION AND BOUNDARIES
lies in the north-west of Maharashtra State.
and Ahmadnagar districts are to the east of Thane district,
Raigad district to the south and Pune district to the south-east,
Mumbai suburban district is to the south-west. The Arabian
Sea is to the west, whereas Gujarat state and Dadra and Nagar
Haveli territory are to the north of this district.
are different land forms in Thane District. The western part
of the district is a plain whereas Tunger, JIvadhan, Tandulwadi,
Takmak, etc., are hills. The Sahyadri mountain is on the eastern
boundary of the district. The Jawhar-Mokhade plateau is in
the north-easten part of the district.
land forms in a region constitute its physical set-up. If
we consider the physical set-up of Thane District, we see
that there are three physical divisions.
Mountainous Region of the Sahyadris:-
ranges contitute the eastern part of the district. Parts of
Murbad, Shahapur, Jawhar, Mokhade and Vikramgad talukas form
River Basins -
part of this district is mostly a lowlying area. Kalyan, Bhiwandi,
Wade, Dahanu, Ulhasnagar, Ambarnath and Talasari Talukas form
part of the district is a coastal plain. Dahanu, Palghar,
Vasai, and Thane talukas make up this region.
going eastwards towards Nashik district pass through Shirghat
and Thalghat situated in the district. Naneghat is on the
border of Pune district towards the south-east. It hasw been
an important road for transportation right from the early
days. The Arnala fort in Thane district is well-known.
and Ulhas are the two main rivers in Thane district.
flows across Shahapur, Wade and Palghar talukas and meets
the Arabian Sea. Dahreja, Surya and Tansa are the tributaries
of the Vaitarna. The Datiware creek in Palghar taluka is near
the mouth of the Vaitarna river.
Ulhas enters Thane district through the neighbouring Raigad
distrct. This river has its source in the Borghat and meets
the Arabian Sea at the Vasai creek. Barbi, Bhatsai are its
tributaries. The Ulhas river branches out in two directions
near Thane. The western distributary of this river flows into
the Vasai creek and the southern distributary flows into the
Sea is to the wesxt of Thane district. That is why the climate
of the district is generally hot and humid.
region receives more rainfall than the coastal region. Jawhar,
Wade, Shahapur, Murbad, Vikramgad and Thane talukas receive
more rain than the other talukas. Jawhar and Suryamal are
the hill-stations in our district.
lakes and rivers are the sources of water supply in Thane
district. There are more wells in Vasai, Palghar and Dahanu
areas. There are bunds on the Surya, Vandri, Pelhar, Ulhas
and Murbadi rivers. There is a dam across the Vandri river
in Palghar taluka. The important dams in the district are
Vaitarna, Tansa and Bhatsa where there are huge reservoirs.
Water supply to the city of Mumbai is made from some of the
lakes in Thane district. Water from the rivers Ulhas and Barbi
is supplies to the industrial belt in the south and to New
are forests in the hilly region of Thane district. There are
thick forests in Dahanu, Shahpur, Palghar, Jawhar, Wade and
Mokhade talukas. Sissoo, teak, ain, khair, palas, pangara
trees grow in these forests. Other trees such as banyan, mango,
tamarind, coconut are also found here. Casuarina and eucalyptus
trees have been planted on the sea-coast. The Tansa sanctuary
is in this district. We find wild animals like leopards and
sambhars in this sanctuary.
deposits are found in the Tungar hills in Vasai taluka.
is useful in the construction of houses is found in the bed
of the Ulhas river in the Thane creek. Mumbra is a port where
sand is obtained.
rock called basalt is found in Kalyan, Ambarnath, Vasai and
Thane talukas. It is used in the construction of houses and
is carried on along the sea coast. Uttan, Arnala, Mahim, Satpati,
Chinchani, Dahanu, etc., are ports famous for fishing.
High mineral oilfield is located in the sea.
are many salt pans at Vasai, Bhaindar, Dahanu and other places.
Conches and shells are also obtained from the sea.
kharif crops from the district are rice, vari and nachani.
Urad, moong, kulith are some other crops grown in this season.
the main crop of the district. Rice is grown mainly in Palghar,
Bhiwandi, Murbad, Shahapur, Wade, Vikramgad and Dahanu talukas.
Rice is grown in the other talukas also.
Vari and Nachani
nachani are grown in the hilly region of the east. These crops
are grown mainly in Jawhar, Murbad, Vikramgad, Shahapur and
and gram are the crops grown in the rabi season.
Irrigated Crops and Fruits:
crops are grown in Dahanu, Palghar and Vasai talukas. Dahanu
taluka is famour for fruits. Chikkus are grown on a large
scale at Gholwad. Chikku orchards are also found in Palghar
and Talasari areas. Chikkus grown in these areas are sent
all over India. Other crops include guavas, mangoes, papayas,
grapefruits and coconuts. Vasai and Palghar are famous for
different varieties of bananas such as rajeli, tambeli, mutheli
and velchi. There are rose gardens at Dahanu. Other varieties
of fruits such as bor, wild beries and lychees grow in particular
seasons. There is a great demand for these fruits in the Mumbai
are also grown in our district. Among the vegetables, bringals
are grown on a large scale.
point of view of industries, Thane is an important district
of Maharashtra state. There are many large scale and small
scale industries in the district.
are different types of textile industries at Thane and in
the neighbouring areas. There are cotton and woollen textile
mills at Thane. Silk yarn and cloth are made in Bhiwandi.
There are a large number of powerlooms at Bhiwandi. There
is a factory making artificial silk (yarn) at Mohane.
are many factories manufacturing various articles from iron
and steel in the Thane-Belapur belt. There are factories manufacturing
different types of machines and other metal equipment at Thane.
Kalyan and Dahanu each have a factory where spare parts of
motor-cars are manufactured. There are pharmaceutical and
chemical factories at Ambarnath, Bhaindar and Thane. There
are paint and chemical factories at Thane and Bhaindar. There
is a paper mill too at Thane. Plastic goods are manufactured
at Ulhasnagar and Bhaindar.
are matchbox factories at Ambarnath and Thane. There are canning
factories for the canning of various type of foodstuff, fruit
juice and slices at well as beverage factories at Thane and
Kalyan. There is a big milk project at Dapchari, Saralgaon
and Pali have milk chilling centres. There are rice mills
at Kalyan, Bhiwandi and Dahanu. Bangle making factories are
found in Tarapur and Chinchani areas.
neclar power plant in India was set up at Tarapur in Thane
there are a number of factores manufacturing electrical equipment
at Thane and Ulhasnagar.
are industrial estates at Ambarnath, Kalyan, Bhiwandi, Thane-Belapur,
Badlapur, Mira, Tarapur and Murbad in Thane district.
of transport in Thane district are roads, railways and waterways.
many roads and railways here as Thane district lies close
to Mumbai city and Mumbai suburban districts and as industry
has grown from Mumbai towards Thane.
Highways : Three national highways pass through Thane district.
National Highway : This highway starts from Mumbai. The important
places from Thane district on this highway are Thane, Bhiwandi,
National Highway: This Highway starts from Mumbai. A big bridge
is built on the Thane creek on this highway. This highway
then proceeds from Vashi to Bangalore via Panvel ijn Raigad
National Highway: Ghodbandar, Manor, Talasari, etc., from
this district are on this highway.
are also other roads in the district connecting other places.
: Three main railway lines pass through Thane district. The
first railway line in India. from Mumbai to Thane, was laid
in this district.
Railway Line: Starting from Mumbai, this railway line goes
to Chennai via Thane, Dombivli, Kalyan, Ulhasnagar, Ambarnath,
Badlapur stations in the district.
Railwaqy Line : Thane, Kalyan, Shahad, Titwala, Asangaon,
Khardi and Kasara railway stations are on this railway route.
Railway LIne : This railway goes to Delhi from Mumbai via
vadodara in Gujarat state. The following railway stations
from Thane district are located on this line : Bhaindar, Vasai
Road, Nalasopara, Virar, Palghar, Dahanu Road and Gholwad.
Diva and Vasai Road are the railway junctions in the district.
Transport : Local transport facility has been proved ona large
scale for the people from Thane district to go to Mumbai and
various suburbs as also to places in Thane district. Local
transport is useful for travelling to and from offices, factories,
educational institutions, etc., as well as for business.
used for local transport are called local trains. They run
on electricity. Local trains leaving from Chhatrapati Shivaji
Terminus go upto Kalyan, Ambarnath and Kasara in Thane district.
Local trains leaving from Churchage railway station go upto
Dahanu in the district. One railway line goes from Diva upto
Panvel in Raigad district in the south. Trains have now started
plying from Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, Mumbai upto Panvel.
lto this, buses also carry the local traffic in Mumbai-Thane-Kalyan
Thane district is near the sea. So the coastal traffic in
the district is carried by sea. Creeks are also used for transport.
Dahanu, Satpati, Mahim. Kalyan, Vasai, Uttan, etc., are the
ports in the district.
Wood for building cojnstruction, coal, honey, salt, fish,
fruits, vegetables, etc., are sent to other places from the
distrct. Cotton, iron, sugar, fertilizers, medicines, kerosene,
etc., are brought into the district from other districts or
LIFE OF THE ADIVASIS
region consisting of Mokhade, Jawhar, Talasari, Dahanu, Wade,
Vikramgad, Shahapur and Murbad talukas is in the north and
north-east of Thane district. Adivasis live in this hilly
region. They are known by the following names : Warli, Katkari,
Thakar, Malhar koli, Dhodia and Dubla.
are a number of important places in Thane district -
Thane is the district headquarters. There are many industries
here. There are cotton and woollen textile mills. Also, there
are factories manufacturing paper, paints, metal equipment,
machinery and iron goods. The Kopineshwar temple of Thane
This place is the taluka headquarters and the main railway
junction. There are rice mills here as also factories making
car spare parts. Sand, bricks and rice are sent out from here
by waterways. The Hajimalang dargah is situated on Malangagad
This town is situated on the Mumbai-Agra highway. This
place is famous for its handlooms and powerlooms. Carpets
and silk fabric are made here. Machinery for rice mills is
also manufactured here. There are rice mills and timber marts
: This taluka headquarters is situated on the Mumbai-Pune
railway line. There are factories manufacturing chemicals,
matchboxes, explosives and watches. The ancient Shivalaya
of Ambarnath is worth visiting.
This is the taluka headquarters. This town is situated in
the Ulhas river basin. It has factories making radio sets
and plastic goods.
: This is the taluka headquarters. This place is on the
Nashik-Dahanu road. As it is situated on a high plateau, it
is known as a hill-station.
There are dairy facility (Gawaliwada) at Dapchari for adivasis.
A milk project has also been developed here on a large scale.
: It has a Sarvodaya Kendra for adivasis.
: This place is situated on the banks of the Vaitarna
river. It is a junction of Mumbai-Ahmadabad and Palghar-Wade
roadways. That is why it has become a transport centre.
: Vajreshwari is famous for its hot water springs. Hot
water springs are also found Ganeshpuri, Akloli, Datiware
: This is an important place in Vasai taluka. Local trains
from Mumbai travel upto this station. The Arnala port is located
nearby, Arnala fort is well-known.
: New Mumbai beyond the Thane creek is a planned city.
Vashi, the main town, is known as Vashinagar.
: This is an important centre on the Central Railway.
There are various industries here.
: This is an important centre on the Western Railway.
There are many salt pans here. There are also factories manufacturing
chemicals, paints, plastic articles and medicines.
: This place is the taluka headquarters. The hill-station
Suryamal is nearby.
: Vasai on the Western Railway is the taluka headquarters.
There are a famous historical fort here. There are also banana
and betel-leaf plantations. There is a factory making fountain
: Palghar is the taluka headquarters. There is a nuclear
power plant at Tatapur which is nearby.
: This place is the taluka headquarters. There are chikku
and rose gardens here. It is a fishing port. There are factories
manufacturing iron water drawing wheels and car spare parts.
Also, there are rice mills. A special kind of jaggery (tadgul)
is made from the sap of the palm tree. Small boats too are
: This port is famous for fishing.
: This is the taluka headquarters.
Shahapur, Murbad, Wade are taluka headquarters. They are
developing gradually. There is a Vitthal-Rakhumai temple at
Shahad and a Ganapati temple at Titwala.
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