| Himachal Pradesh
Geographical Area : 55 673
Population in 2001 : 60 77 900
Estimated population in 2025 : 75 37 000
Provisional Numbers in Census 2011
Himachal Pradesh population as percentage of India : 0.57%
Population in 2011 : 68 56 509
Males 34 73 892
Females 33 82 617
Sex ratio : 974
Under 6 Sex ratio : 906
Number of Districts : 12
Number of habitated villages : 17,495
Hindi & Pahari
History and Geography
Himachal situated in the heart of the western Himalaya, identified
as "Dev Bhumi"and is believed to be the abode of Gods
and Goddesses. The entire State is punctuated with stone as well
as wood temples. The rich culture and traditions have made Himachal
unique in itself. The shadowy valleys, rugged crags, glaciers and
gigantic pines and roaring rivers and exquisite flora and fauna
compose the symphony that is for ever Himachal.
Himachal Pradesh came into being as a Union Territory in April
1948 as a result of integration of 30 princely States spread over
27,000 sq.km. In 1954, when another C"class state of Bilaspur
merged in Himachal Pradesh, its area increased to 28,241 sq.km.
The position remained unchanged till 1966. On re-organisation of
the State, the hilly areas of Punjab were merged with the State,
increasing its size to 55,673 sq.km. Himachal Pradesh today is quoted
as a successful model of not only hill area development but also
for having realised development in education, health and social
Agriculture being the main occupation of the people of Himachal
Pradesh has an important role in the economy of the State. It provides
direct employment to about 69 per cent of the main working population.
Income from agriculture and allied sectors accounts for nearly 22.1
per cent of the total State Domestic Product. Out of the total geographical
area of 55.673 sq. km., area of operational holding is about 9.79
lakh hectares owned by 9.14 lakh farmers. The marginal and small
farmers possess 86.4 per cent of the total land holdings. The cultivated
area in the state is only 10.4 percent. About 80 per cent of the
area is rain fed and farmers depend on weather gods for rains. The
food grain production in 2006-2007 has been 16 lakh metric tonnes.
Nature has endowed Himachal Pradesh with a wide range of agro-climatic
conditions, which have helped the farmers to cultivate large varieties
of fruits ranging from temperate to sub-tropical. The main fruits
under cultivation are apple, pear, peach, plum, apricot nut and
citrus fruits like mango, litchi, guava and strawberry. The total
area under fruits, which was only 792 hectares in 1950, has increased
to 2.23 lakh hectares now. Similarly, the fruit production has also
increased from 1200 MT in 1950 to 6.95 lakh tonnes in 2007 seven
lakh tonnes is the new target fixed for fruit production for year
2006-07. Horticulture generates gross domestic income of about Rs.2200
The Horticulture Technology Mission for the integrated development
of horticulture is being implemented with a total outlay of Rs.80
crore during the tenth five-year plan period. This Mission is based
on the end to end approach"taking into account the entire gamut
of horticulture development with all backward and forward linkages
in a holistic manner. Under this scheme, four centres of excellence
are being created in different Agro-Climatic Zones with common facilities
like water harvesting, vermicompost, greenhouses, organic farming
and farm mechanisation.
Roads are the lifelines and major means of communication in the
predominantly hill State of Himachal Pradesh. Out of its 55,673
sq. km area, 36,700 km is inhabited out which 16,807 inhabited villages
are scattered over slopes of numerous hill ranges and valleys. Realising
the importance of construction of roads for connecting production
areas with market centres, Himachal Pradesh Government has decided
to connect every panchayat with roads in the next two years. When
the Pradesh came into existence in 1948 there were 288 km. of roads.
This number had gone up to 30,264 km by 15 August 2007.
Himachal Pradesh has immense hydro-potential in its five river basins.
Chenab, Rabi, Beas, Satluj and Yamuna which emanates from the western
Himalayas pass through the State. The strategy of development in
the power sector comprises expeditious actualisation of the Hydro
Electric Potential and introduction of power sector reforms to bring
efficiency in the sector and provide high quality power to the consumers
at reasonable rates besides availability of abundant power to industrial
and tourism sectors. The total identified potential in the State
stands at 21000 M.W which is one fourth of Indias total hydro-power
potential. Presently out of this 6,067 M.W has already been harnessed
by various agencies. Projects aggregating to 7,602 M.W are under
execution. It is on the cards that State will have about 11,000
M.W actualised potential by the end of 11th Plan.
There is no denying this fact in view of the way the Government
has embarked upon an accelerated Power Development Programme. The
State is speedily moving towards becoming a "Power State"of
the Country. All the census villages in the State have been electrified
and now left out hamlets are being covered.
Industrial development has been given big boost in the State. Pollution
free environment, abundant availability of power and rapidly developing
infrastructure, peaceful atmosphere, and responsive and transparent
administration are some of the added attractions and advantages
that the entrepreneurs get in Himachal Pradesh. 349 large and medium
and about 33,284 small-scale industrial units with an investment
of about Rs.4822.54 crore have been set up in the State generating
employment for 2 lakh persons. The sector is contributing 17 per
cent to the State Domestic Product and the annual turnover on this
account is about Rs.6000 crore.
The State has formulated a new Industrial Policy and Incentive
Rules- 2004, which provides attractive packages to the entrepreneurs
for setting up Industrial Units in the State. 42 industrial areas
and 15 Industrial Estates with all basic amenities have been developed
in the State.
With a view to provide umbrella support to existing and new ventures,
the State Government has set up a State Level Single Window Clearance
and Monitoring Authority ( SLSWCMA) in Himachal Pradesh under the
Chairmanship of Chief Minister to give permission to the entrepreneurs
to set up industrial units in the State. This also solves all industry
related and inter-departmental issues, monitors and reviews the
progress of units already approved and proposed to be set up. This
Authority is also focusing its attention on the development of quality
infrastructure. Presently 7040 industrial units with an investment
of about Rs.27,380.99 crore envisaging employment to about 3 lakh
persons have been approved. A proposal is also underway for setting
up Special Economic Zone in Kangra,Una and other districts with
an estimated cost of Rs.7580 crore.
The Central Government has also given attractive package for setting
up of Industrial Units. The State Government is also giving several
attractive incentives including exemptions in excise duty.
The Government of Himachal Pradesh has developed an IT Vision-2010
in collaboration with NASSCOM to make Himachal Pradesh an IT destination.
Under the IT policy, it has been decided to accord the status of
industry to all IT projects including IT related services and educational
institutions. As such, all the incentives available for industrial
units are also being given to all IT units, and IT related services.
The use of IT in governance is aimed at having SMART (Simple, Moral,
Accountable, Responsive and Transparent) government. The State Government
official website at http://himachal.nic.in is a web portal providing
citizen centric services to the citizens and it has got interfaces
for getting inputs from the grassroots level. The first phase of
the H.P. State wide Area Network (HIM SWAN) which has been completed
has been connected to internet. In the PhaseI of HIMSWAN, H.P. Secretariat
Local Area Network has been established with a provision to provide
LAN connectivity to every third person. In the Phase-II of HIMSWAN
all the districts headquarters will be connected with state headquarter.
Software Technology Park and High Speed Data Connectivity Facility
in Shimla has started its activities. All IT units in the State
have been given Income Tax holiday up to year 2007. Information
Technology Park is proposed to be set up in the State in Solan district.
Keeping in view the importance of bio-technology, special emphasis
is being laid on exploiting the vast bio-technology potential available
in the State. A separate Department of Bio-technology has been set
up in the State. States own bio-technology policy has been formulated.
All bio-technological units are entitled for incentives which have
been allowed for industrial units. The State Government proposes
to set up Bio-technology Park in Solan District.
Irrigation and Water Supply
Net sown area in the State was 5.83 lakh hectares till 2007.Villages
have been provided with the facility of drinking water. Over 14,611
hand pumps have been installed in the State so far. For better reform
in water supply and irrigation sector, the State Government has
taken up a WASH project with the total cost of Rs.339 crore for
irrigation as well as for drinking water supply schemes with Gesellschaft
for Technische Zuoammeuorbeit (GTZ).
The total geographical area of the state is 55,673 sq km. As per
record, the total forest area is 37,033 sq. km. Out of this, 16,376
sq. km. area is not fit for tree growth comprising alpine pastures,
area under permanent snow, etc. The cultivable recorded forest area
is only 20,657 sq. km.
Efforts are being taken to bring maximum area under green cover
by implementing States own projects, Government of Indias projects
and also through external aided projects. The World Bank has also
sanctioned a Rs.365 crore Integrated Watershed Development Project
for the Mid Himalayas. 545 panchayats of 42 developmental blocks
in 10 districts would be covered during the next six years. There
are 2 National Parks and 32 wild life sanctuaries in the State.
Total area under wild life sanctuaries is 5562 km area under National
Parks is 1440 Km and total area of Protected Area Network is 7002
Himachal Pradesh has emerged as the third best State in terms of
over-all development and performance. Himachal Pradesh has been
adjudged number one State in Primary Education and teacher-student
ratio. Himachal Pradesh has witnessed literacy revolution as we
are second only to Kerala in literacy. The State has about 15,000
educational institutes, including three Universities, two Medical
Colleges, one Engineering College in the Government Sector and a
number of technical, professional and other educational institutions.
The literacy percentage of the State according to 2001 Census is
77.13, which is much higher than the national average of 65.38.
The State Governments emphasis now is to ensure qualitative improvement
in the education besides need based expansion. Sarva Siksha Abhiyan
an ambitious project worth Rs.532 crore is being evolved with the
main objective of achieving universalisation of elementary education
with the sole aim to spread the light of knowledge to every nook
and corner of the State.
Tourism Industry in Himachal Pradesh has been given very high priority
and the Government has developed an appropriate infrastructure for
its development which includes provision of public utility services,
roads, communication network, airports, transport facilities, water
supply and civic amenities, etc. The State Government is poised
to transform the State into "A Destination for All Seasons
and All Reasons".
The State Tourism Development Corporation contributes 10 per cent
to the State exchequer. The corporation contributes more than Rs.2.00
crore per annum by way of Sales tax, luxury tax and passenger tax.
In the year-2007, tourist arrivals in the State were 8.3 million
of which 2008 lakh were foreigners.
The State has a rich treasure of places of pilgrimage and of anthropological
value. The State has also the pride of being the home to rishis
like Vyas, Parashar,Vashist, Markandey and Lamas, etc. Hot water
springs, historic forts, natural and man-made lakes, shepherds grazing
their flock are sources of immense pleasure and joy to the tourist.
The State Government is aiming at promoting sustainable tourism,
encouraging private sector to develop tourism related infrastructure
in the State without disturbing the existing ecology and environment.
The main thrust is on employment generation and promoting new concepts
of tourism in the State. In order to increase the duration of the
stay of the visitors/tourists, a special emphasis is being laid
on the development of activities-based on tourism.
For the promotion and development of the State from the tourism
point of view, the Government is focusing on the following areas:
History related tourism
Identification of new areas/tourist destinations and promotion of
Improvement of infrastructure,
Promotion of adventure tourism
For the year 2006-07, there is an allotment of Rs.6276.38 lakh for
the development of tourism in the State. A sum of Rs.8 crore for
the development of Kullu-Manali-Lahaul and Spiti and Leh Monastic
circuit, Rs.21.00 crore for Kangra, Shimla and Sirmaur circuit,
Rs.16.00 crore for Bilaspur-Mandi and Chamba circuit and Rs.30.00
lakh for construction of tourism information centre at Manali has
been sanctioned by the Government of India. Rs.6757 crore central
financial assistance has been received for 1545 projects in respect
of festivals and other major events.